These are two simple breadboard creations with one transistor and one LED light. The white cord is hooked up to the positive contact point on a battery, and the black cord is hooked up to the negative contact. The electricity flows through the white wire, through the resistor which weakens the current, through the LED, and then through the black wire back to the battery.

This is a much more complicated creation. It uses multiple resistors, multiple LED's, and a transistor to give the person the option to light up different LED's just by moving the source of power around.


Using cedar logic is an easy way to test out the uses and applications of various gates. Some gates that you can use in the program are AND, OR, NAND, NOR, and XOR. All of these work in different ways, sending out current when different currents are received:

The binary counter in CEDAR:

This is a simple binary counter that can show the user how to count to three in binary code.

1 in binary is 01

2 in binary is 10

3 in binary is 11

The Flip Flop

The flip flop circuit is the reason why we can store information on a computer like we do today. Here is a picture of a simple one:

If both R and S are turned to "1" simultaneously, the circuit will remember what was previously on R and S before the switch took place. If not for the flip flop circuit, storing information on a computer might be much harder and more inefficient but luckily we do have the flip flop circuit.


Soldering is a much more permanent method of wiring than breadboarding. Soldering is the act of joining two or more metals by melting them together with solder. The soldering iron used to heat up the metals can be as hot as 800 degrees Fahrenheit so you have to take great caution when handling them.
Using a soldering iron we connected a battery and two LED's to a little robot called blinky that interconnected all the pieces.

Soldering Iron

Here is blinky. Without using the solder it would be very hard to get the LEDs and battery to stay in place.