Circuits are a series of inputs to get a certain output in
a specific order.

Counting in binary

In binary, there is only an on and of state, or 1 and 0. To make a number bigger then 1, those ones and zeros
to represent a different number. Going right to left, the values of the space are 2 to the power of how many spaces it
is the the left. So 1=1, 10=2, 100=4, 1001=9, 1011=11.

Logic Gates

Gates are impute output representation. An AND gate is were both the inputs have to be 1 (one), for the output to be one. As shown below, the and gate is just a wire with two switches, the inputs. When one is open, the current can't go through.
only when both are closed can current run through.

Types of gates

AND gate: An and gate will only output on when both inputs are on
OR gate: Will output on if any input is on
XOR gate: Will output on only if one input is on, it will be off if both are on or off.
Putting N in the gate means Not, so a NOR gate is a not or, were if any input is on, the output will be off.


Using a program called CEDAR Logic simulator, we used virtual gates. Using AND, OR, and inverters, you can make more
complicated gates to do tasks. In the example below, using gates, a simple two bit adder is made 3 and gates, an or gate
and an inverter. The gates can be simplified into an XNOR gate. An XOR gate will let current though when only
when one is one, and stops current if both inputs are on or off. The top light means 1 if on, and the bottom equals two.

Flip flop

A flip flops are a gate system where one or more inputs makes the outputs change, toggle, or flash. Flip flops are a
key component that makes computers work. A flip flop can be made with two gates or more, like this RSNOR Latch.

The way it works is one (lets use the top as example) will send a signal that will go to the other, turning and keeping it off, and staying on itself.
But when the bottom gets an input, it will output to turn the top off and keep an outputting the bottom signal.

There are also locks that can be put so that the output will only change if the lock is disabled. in the example below
the middle input has to be on so that the outer inputs could change the hole flip flop output.

Little fun

My friend was playing around with gates and made a complicated system to make other gates only using NAND gates.
Seeing this I wanted to understand what he did and after looking at it, fingered it out, along with how over complicated
it was. You can see his original in the link HERE at the bottom half of the page.
Trying to under stand what he did from the images was a bit hard, so I attempted to do it in CEDAR too. I found that his
was overcomplicated just for the sake of overcomplicating it. Simplifying it came out to be this:


On Tuesday we worked with soldering, were you melt solder onto a circuit to make it permanent.

We also watched a video about a 15 year old who was making radios, batteries, and more with so little. I found it to inspirational.

Operating systems

An operation system is used in almost any device that has a computer. The os, or operating system, is what most programs need
to function. The programs talk to the os, and the os will talk with hardware to do task. The depending on the os, it can do
many things such as split the cpu to multi task, or dedicate to one function. The os will manage all hardware and how programs
can use the hardware. Linux is an os that is widely used, because it is open source, it is free for anyone to use, and has no
restrictions like other operating systems. It is good to practice programming an os, making new os based on it, give you greater freedom,
and can be a os that can run on very little resources.

Programming language

A programming language is the code that will translate code humans can understand to what a computer would understand. Many languages have
been made to do various objectives. Low level languages are close to the programming where high level is more understandable for humans.
Only some of them are used widely. Popular ones are easy to do and can do many things. This is a
reason that Python is popular, as it is simple. Python is a high level language. C is widely used as a language because of the amount of
control and efficiency that is has.


A transistor is a semiconductor, witch means it will let electricity through only when certain conditions are meet. In a transistor, there are two
material in them, one that has an extra electron(the outer sides), and one with one less(in the middle). The electrons naturaly want to go to the
middle, but the border will have electrons and not let any through any more. You can then add a gate that can be powered with a low electric
power that will then let electrons go through the transistor.

The transistor is impotent because it can be turned on and off extremely quickly, and also be made amazingly small(today's are only about 50 atoms long).
With so many transistor able to fit in a small space, they can make gates that let's them make most electronics we have today.

Moore's Law

Gordon E. Moore is the co-founder of Intel, and made a prediction about the future of computers. Moore's law is the production that the number of
transistors in a chip have to double every two years. This trend has been true, part to companies
setting this as there goals. There is an atomic limit on how small we can make transistors, at some point they will be small enough that quantum mechanics will
play a role. We may use other methods to continue this law like quantum computing, but a of now, that limit will not come for a decade.